In January , the opening of fissures lower down and directed towards Goma may reflect a new evolution for the volcano with eruptions caused by rifting. Two types of lava eruption are hypothesized by scientists. This approach includes the careful siting of human settlements and key infrastructure, such as hospitals and other buildings of importance, overhead power supplies and sub-stations, the water pumping stations and the water distribution networks, stores of emergency food and other essential supplies, etc. If the beneficiaries tell us clearly, as they did, time and again in Goma, that what they needed was cash, why did aid agencies persist in giving them goods? However, the low mortality might make people underestimate the volcanic hazard in the future with consequently higher loss of life. The very fluid lava flows were not considered to be a major threat to Goma.

Risk assessment in this crisis should include the regular input of health experts, together with international relief agencies and NGO’s working in Goma. Visits were made to Sake and camps for displaced persons. According to US experts, volcanic ash at high altitudes normally has a distinctive positive IR New pits had to be dug to take the effluent, and these were often rudimentary. People can then spend it according to their own priorities and needs, something which the aid world claims to support, and which is specifically mentioned in all its manuals and seminars. No lorries or stores are needed, and the logistics are certainly simpler.

The acute impact of the volcanic crisis on the humanitarian situation has been small, as far as we can tell a “blip” according to one NGO official.

The threat of an underwater volcanic eruption causing a violent outpouring of gases was considered by Tuttle, Lockwood and Evans in a USGS Open File Report following a brief field visit to the lake by the authors in and it was not published. Co-ordination of the international scientific effort is being provided through UN-OCHA and monitoring of the Nyiragongo and Nyramuragira volcanoes and Lake Kivu must be established as a matter of urgency.


The hazard map in current circulation needs revision and the eruption scenarios refined for the Goma Contingency Plan. A detailed analysis of the conflict and humanitarian crisis, including the policies towards Goma of outside governments and relief bodies, was outside the terms of reference of this report.

About 30, people stayed in the west nyiraongo of the city during the eruption, and this area is not on the network. The importance of this is not sufficiently recognised in parts of the international community and needs to be reinforced as voclano integral aspect of contingency planning. The mechanism for the release cxse lava in the eruption was more clearly a drainage phenomenon, with radial fissuring around the summit crater and a high level of very fluid lava in the lake. The search for truth: The explanation for the different directions of the plumes could be that the plumes come from two sources located at different altitudes: The onset of the eruption was preceded by almost 8 hours of very low seismicity and it started without any detectable preceding signal at local time.

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

View in Fullscreen Report. The high carbon dioxide levels emitted at these sites were confirmed Fig.

Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo

An ash sample from the 22 January crater explosion was kindly supplied by the GVO and sent for analysis. Volcanic hazard risks, scientific forecasts and warnings.

The eruptions of both volcanoes exhibit the same classical effusive and mildly explosive activity characterized by the opening of long, gaping fissures through which lava emerges at different locations, and these emissions merge to form lava flows several hundred metres wide. The significant findings were, in the lake water, fluoride levels of 1. Thousands of people spent the night in safety on Mt Goma, where an unparalleled view of the eruption was obtained. The areas where displaced people were living required new distribution systems.

This is one of the world’s most important volcanic crises. eruprion

nyiragongo volcano eruption 2002 case study

At the time of writing, scientists are concerned that the continuing high level of seismic activity indicates that the tectonic rifting may be gradually continuing. Then, Nyramuragira erupted between 4 and 17 July when lava fountains on the western flank also produced glassy tephra, which blanketed an area of more than 30 km2 towards the western side, and killed large numbers of cattle grazing on the ash-covered grass.


RSS – Subscribe to information finely tuned to your needs. Nyiragongo Published by Guset User The effects of the January eruption and evacuation on the already existing complex emergency were apparently small, but the long-term consequences of the psychological and economic impacts, and the political repercussions surrounding the future of Goma, are possibly yet to unfold.

The lessons that need to be considered in volcanic risk management for the present population of the Goma area include the following:.

The case for cash: Goma after the Nyiragongo eruption – ODI HPN

stusy The eruption began without warning at In Goma, individual risk is the current criterion of the people and, in the absence of governmental mechanisms to evaluate and act on societal risk, it is almost inevitable that in a further crisis significant loss of life could occur. Lessons in Post-Disaster Assistance from Goma, unpublished case study, Episodic lava-lake filling at Nyiragongo began on 23 June, the first such activity since when the lake first refilled after the eruption.

For the local people, as Tazieff learned, the volcano was a resting place for the souls of their ancestors.

Complex justifications are developed. Of thepersons who have lost their homes, about 15, were in camps in the Goma environs. The speed and scale of the influx of these ethnic Hutus overwhelmed the world’s response capacity.

Scientists agree that volcano monitoring and contingency planning eruptkon essential for forecasting and responding to future trends.