A final recommended resource is this interview with Brenda Milner. Interference is an explanation for forgetting from long term memory — two sets of information become confused. Forgetting is greatest when context and state are very different at encoding and retrieval. As witnessing a real crime is probably more stressful than taking part in an experiment, memory accuracy may well be even more affected in real life. It has limited a limited capacity and deals with only one piece of information at a time. A study by Goodwin investigated the effect of alcohol on state-dependent internal retrieval. The experimental group also had to learn another list of words where the second paired word if different — e.

This is an example of retroactive interference. See below for one suggestion Everything you need to know about selling on Stuvia. What do you want to do? Nevertheless, recent research has attempted to address this by investigating ‘real-life’ events and has provided support for interference theory. Evidence indicates that retrieval is more likely when the context at encoding matches the context at retrieval.

Report Everything The interviewer encourages the witness to report all details about the event, even though these details may seem unimportant.

Proactive and retroactive Interference is thought to be more likely to occur where the memories are similar, for example: One of the earliest and most influential distinctions of long term memory was proposed by Tulving When we come into the same situation again, these retrieval cues can trigger the memory of the situation. It does not involve conscious thought i. Assignment 3 – Analysing K.

wtudy People tend to remember material better when there is a match between their mood at learning and at retrieval. You must evaluate the studies you present. Types of cues that have been studied by psychologists include context, state and organisation When we store a new memory we also store information about the situation and these are known as retrieval cues.


shallice & warrington 1970 kf case study

Loftus and Palmer investigated how misleading information could distort eyewitness testimony accounts. See below for one suggestion Clifford and Scott found that people who saw a film of a violent attack remembered fewer of the 40 items sha,lice information about the event than a control group who saw a less stressful version.

Memory is clearly a crucial part of what it is to be human – imagine trying to live life without it – and it has been extensively studied by psychologists. Why are we able xhallice recall information which we did not rehearse e. This may have influenced them to be more swayed by the verb in the question. A digit span task which required them to repeat a list of numbers, and a verbal reasoning task which required them to answer true or false to various questions e.

When they were asked to remember the words half of the beach learners remained on the beach, the rest had to recall underwater. Another limitation is that some elements of the cognitive interview may be more valuable than others.

KF – Shallice and Warrington 1974

A double dissociation is very strong evidence that the two skills are controlled by separate brain areas. This means researchers can do experiments to improve on this model and make it wareington valid and they can prove what the stores actually do. This was a laboratory experiment with five conditions, only one of which was experienced by each participant an independent measures experimental design.


Triangulating evidence The cases of Clive Wearing and H. Organisation – Recall is improved if the organisation gives a structure which provides triggers, eg categories. Look back at the assumptions of the Multi-Store Model of Memory above.

Cognition and Physiology – Psych Tutor

Semantic Memory Semantic memory is a part of the long-term memory responsible for storing information about the sfudy. The VSS is a temporary memory system for holding visual and spatial information. One limitation is the fact that little is known about how the central executive works. There are three main ways in which information can be encoded changed: Key features include the central executive, the phonological loop, and the visuospatial sketchpad.

shallice & warrington 1970 kf case study

Are there any new insights that you can gain through looking at all of the results holistically? Retrieval cues can be:. Recall from a Changed Perspective Trying to mentally recreate the situation from different points of view e.

Interference is an explanation for forgetting from long term memory — two sets of information become confused. Working memory is supported by dual task studies. Features of the model: The incident took place on a major thoroughfare in mid-afternoon. It is crucial that you know what the examiners 170 looking for so that you can write exactly what is needed for top marks!